The orange-red pigment from Penicillium mallochii: Pigment production, optimization, and pigment efficacy against Glioblastoma cell lines
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The red-orange pigment producer strain Penicillium mallochii (TACB-16) used in this study was isolated from beech tree bark in Balikesir, Turkey, and was identified by molecular methods (P. mallochii Genbank accession number: MG591446). P. mallochii Rivera, Urb & Seifert was first isolated from the caterpillars Rothschildia lebeau and Citheronia lobesis on Costa Rica and is a new record for Turkey. Little is known of this fungus. In this study, the pigment production of P. mallochii on different media was characterised, and the factors affecting the pigment production and efficacy against the human GB cell line T98G cell viability/cytotoxicity were inspected. The results showed that the pigment was resistant to different temperatures and pH values. The -250 base pair of the ITS region was sequenced and submitted to the Genbank. The blast result of the sequence showed that our isolate displayed maximum similarity (100%) to P. mallochii. Glioblastoma (grade-IV astrocytoma, WHO) is the most lethal subtype of glioma and the survival rate of GB patients is still low. Our results suggest that the pigment exhibits anti-proliferative effects on the T98G cell line. The present study is the first to assess the cytotoxic effect of the pigment on the survival of GB cells. Further studies and validations are needed, but we suggest that the pigment might be used for in vitro and in vivo studies, food industry and for future medical drug studies.