Ortaöğretim biyoteknoloji ve gen mühendisliği kavramlarının öğrenciler tarafından değerlendirilmesi
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Toplumların bugün biyoteknoloji ve gen mühendisliği alanında aldığı eğitimler, sahip oldukları bilgiler ve yaptıkları çalışmalar, onların gelecekteki dünyanın bu alanında şekillenmesinde söz sahibi olup olmayacaklarını belirleyecektir. Bu alanda verilen eğitimin alanının durumunun yeterli olup olmadığının ve öğretimdeki sorunların belirlenmesinin bu nedenle önemi büyüktür. Bu doğrultuda bu çalışmada "Biyoteknoloji ve Gen Mühendisliği" konusundaki bazı kavramların ve bilgilerin zorluk derecelerini ve bu durumu ortaya çıkaran sebepler olduğu düşünülen kitap içeriği ve ilgili konunun derslerde işlenişine ilişkin öğrenci görüşlerini belirlemek amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla 150 öğrenciye 45 maddeden oluşan "Biyoteknoloji ve Gen Mühendisliği Kavramlar Anketi" uygulanmış ve 14 öğrenciyle yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Anketten elde edilen veriler SPSS 17 programı kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Görüşme formundan elde edilen veriler ise betimsel yolla analiz edilmiştir. Sonuçta DNA parmak izi, DNA analizi, genom projesi, kök hücre tedavisi, sentetik hormonlar, rekombinant DNA teknolojisi ürünleri, interferon, biyogüvenlik protokolü, poliploidi, sentetik enzim ve etik öğrenilmesi çok zor ve zor olarak ifade edilen kavramlardır. Bu kavramların bazılarının öğrenilmesinin zorluğu ders kitabından, bazılarının öğrenilmesinin zorluğu ise öğretmenin derste uyguladığı yöntemlerden kaynaklandığı bulunmuştur. Öğretmenlerin hızla gelişen biyoteknoloji konusunda uygulamalı çalışmalarla desteklenmesinin gerektiği düşünülmektedirExtended Abstract: The implementations of biotechnological sciences date back to old times. Archaeological evidence shows that humans utilize some of the biotechnological applications even in those old periods (Akurgal, 1997). The term biotechnology is first used by Ereky in 1919 (Nasim, 2003). Starting from the exploration of the double helix structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953, significant modern implications of biotechnology has accelerated. (Yüce and Yalçın, 2012). Modern biotechnology is now used in so many fields such as pharmacy, medicine, agriculture and food industry as well as environmental protection and human health (Pardo, Midden and Miller, 2002; Sorgo and Ambrozic-Dolinsek, 2010). Therefore, biotechnological studies are of the important developments that have so many good or detrimental effects on our lives (Ho, 2001). The multidisciplinary structure of biotechnology is composed of knowledge that can be perceived as complex for learners which may result some learning difficulties (Thieman and Palladino, 2013). In addition, the rapid improvements in that technologies lead to rapid emergence of different benefits and risks and also increase the importance of biotechnological knowledge and related discussions in our daily lives. In line with these improvements and challenges, providing adequate biotechnology education in schools gains necessity and importance (Hanegan and Bigler 2009; Steele and Aubusson 2004). Using biotechnology in different many fields also creates this necessity to include the field in educational systems (Saez, Gomez Nino and Carretero, 2008). The voice of societies in shaping the future world in the fields of biotechnology and genetic engineering will definitely be determined by the education they received, the knowledge they possessed and the work they committed. So, it is important to determine the adequateness of the education and the instructional problems related to biotechnology and genetics engineering. Examining related literature show that, studies are generally focused on determining the attitudes, views and knowledge levels of the risks, the benefits and the acceptability of the biotechnological developments on individuals from different age groups and segments of the society (Dawson and Schibeci, 2003; Gunter, Kinderlerer and Beyleveld, 1998; Lock and Miles, 1993; Masakazu and Macer, 2004; Massarani and Moreira, 2005). Studies related to the biotechnological content knowledge of students imply that they generally have inadequate and inaccurate knowledge of the field (Dawson, 2007; Prokop, Le?ková, Kubiatko and Diran, 2007; U?ak et. al., 2009; Keskin et. al., 2010). As mentioned in many studies, students have difficulties in conceptual knowledge level. Within this line, the present study aims to determine students" views on the degree of difficulty of some concepts and knowledge in biotechnology and genetic engineering as well as on the book content and on the implementation of the context, which may cause these problems. The sample of the study is composed of a total of randomly selected 150 11th (80 students) and 12th (70 students) graders who are attending a private teaching institution in the Marmara Region of Turkey. In addition, interviews are conducted with a total of 14 11th (7 students) and 12th (7 students) graders selected from that sample. Data collection tools are 45-item "Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Concepts Inventory and a semi-structured interview protocol which are developed by the researchers based on the content of the national biology textbook used in Anatolian Schools, Science Schools and Vocational Schools in 2012-2013 school year. There are 45 concepts related to "Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering" in the Inventory. Students are asked to check the "The Concept I know" box if they heard about that concept and to evaluate every unique concept as (1) very hard, (2) hard, (3) normal, (4) easy and (5) very easy in a 5-point-likert scale. Also, unchecked concepts are coded with "0". Obtained data from the inventory are analyzed via SPSS for frequency and percentage distributions. Alpha reliability coefficient of the data scores calculated as .95. Expert views are also showed that the inventory has construct and content validity. 6 -question-semistructured interview protocol is composed of questions focused on the instructional process in order to determine the reasons of conceptual knowledge problems and it is also checked by two expert biology teachers and three university professors. In addition, it is piloted on 20 students to check the clarity of the questions. The data of the interviews analyzed and examined descriptively by grouping them as themes and sub themes. The results showed that students find five of 45 concepts which are DNA Fingerprint, DNA Analysis, Genome Project, Stem Cell Treatment and Synthetic Hormones very hard. They evaluated Genome Project, Recombinant DNA Technology, Stem Cell Treatment, DNA Analysis and Interferons as hard concepts. Also, they evaluated Gene Cloning, Reclamation Processes, Biotechnology and Recombinant Technology Products and Gene Transferring as normal to learn concepts. They thought GDO (Transgenic Organisms), Cloning, Biotechnology, Artificial Insemination concepts are easy to learn. Lastly, they evaluated Zygote, Hybridization, Antibiotic, Stem Cell and the effect of GDO products on human health as very easy concepts to learn. Besides, s tudents left bio-security protocol, ethics, polyploidy, synthetic enzymes and synthetic hormones concepts blank. According to these findings, it is possible to say that students" evaluation of some concepts as easy can be attributed to be exposed to these concepts via media and frequent usage of them in their daily life. Based on the interview findings, it is found that reasons for these concepts to be described as hard take its source from the methods of the teacher and the content in the textbook. Another result from interview finding showed that students prefer a learning method in which they can observe and experience the processes in biotechnology actively. In order to get rid of these learning difficulties, it is important to explain these concepts fully and clearly in textbooks. Also, it is important to visualize the concepts, using current examples to explain them, make students follow the written and visual media for related news, conducting laboratory experiments, using animations, simulations and documentaries in the classroom can be recommended to eliminate the learning difficulties. Supporting teachers to join practical in-service trainings in order have adequate competency to apply the recommended methods and opening ways for teachers to join these trainings actively is thought to be important for biotechnology education in schools.