Türk kültüründe yüzle ilgili deyim ve atasözleri üzerine bir çalışma
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Toplumların en önemli dil hazinelerinden olan deyim ve atasözleri kültürlerin dinamiklerini yansıtan kalıplaşmış ifadelerdir. Deyim ve atasözleri günlük hayatı içeren, az sözle çok kavram ve yargının dile getirildiği keskin ifadelerdir. Öğretici olma ve akılda kolay kalma, kuşaktan kuşağa aktarılma özelliğine sahip olan bu kalıplaşmış ifadeler, daima bilim adamlarının ilgisini çeken konular arasında olmuştur. Özellikle halk bilimciler ve dil bilimciler için önde gelen araştırma konularından olan deyimler ve atasözleri, biçim ve anlamlarına göre çeşitlilik gösterirler. Bu makalede, hem güncelliklerini hiçbir zaman kaybetmeyen deyim ve atasözleri arasından, içinde sadece yüz kelimesi bulunanlar tespit edilerek, hem Türk dilinin zenginliğini sergilemek hem de deyim ve atasözü çalışmalarına katkı sağlamak hedeflenmiştir.Idioms and proverbs are significant cliché expressions which also reflect dynamics of cultures in all societies. They are frequently used in everyday language to support or summarize a point of view. They also contain keen observations of everyday life. These cliché expressions are popular subjects among scholars. The study on idioms and proverbs has many applications in a number of fields. They are especially subjects of research areas for folklorists and linguists. The common conclusions of the studies on idioms and proverbs are that they not only reflect the characters and identities of societies but also common knowledge and worldviews of societies. Idioms and proverbs exhibit cultural postures which are very important for all communities. Transmitted generation to generation, idioms and proverbs constitute popular philosophy of life, and provide an insight into human behavior and character. The studies on idioms and proverbs are important fields among European and American scholars. Peter Steil emphasizes this importance of idioms and proverbs for folklore scholars in his studies (Steil, 1969). Proverbs are the simplest metaphoric genres such as folk songs, myths and folk theater. They have direct and open social intentions. Idioms and proverbs have been scrutinized since in early times. It is stated that because of their educational points, the priests in middle ages had translated the proverbs in Bible to Western languages. Western folklorists had discovered that idioms and proverbs reflections of #8220;folk spirit. #8221; The linguists and mythologists had traced the old words and beliefs in old idioms and proverbs. Their popularity is always accepted among scientists. The idioms and proverbs become a subject for research and classification in modern times. The study of proverbs is called #8220;paremiology. #8221; The studies on idioms and proverbs of Archer Taylor have accelerated the studies about proverbs and sayings. Taylor #8217;s work so called The Proverb has shed light on the subject. Later, his work has been published by Wolfgang Meider, the most well-known as a scholar of paremiology today. According to Meider a proverb is a short, generally known sentence of folk which contains wisdom, truth, morals, and traditional views in a metaphorical, fixed and memorizable form and which is handed down from generation to generation (Meider, 2004). Meider #8217;s study also contains an index. Nowadays it is accepted that Meider is the main figure and has numerous works in study of proverbs in the United States. Although some folklorist have focused on the aspect of function in proverbs and idioms (George Herzog, 1936), some folklorists have focused on the aspect of structure (Alan Dundes, 1975, G.B. Miller 1969, Elia Kongas and Pierre Maranda 1971. On the other hand some folklorists focused on the aspects of their relationship with social environment (Ojo Orewa and Alan Dundes, 1964). Like western scholars, proverbs and idioms are important subject areas among Turkish folklorists. They have scrutinized Orkhon Monuments that contain the earliest examples of Turkish proverbs and idioms. Written during the 11th century by Mahmud Kashgarî, Diwan Lugat At- Turk is the first known dictionary and contains fine examples of proverbs and idioms. In addition, the book maintains highly valuable materials about Turkish culture in general. It is also possible to observe cultural heritage of Turks as well as their socio-cultural evolution. İlhan Başgöz who is a well-known figure of Turkish folklore has investigated the relationship social change by applying proverbs in his article called #8220;Image, Message and Social Change. #8221; Some Turkish scientist have studied the aspect of structure in proverbs and idioms (Muharrem Ergin 1985, Zeynep Korkmaz 2003, Leyla Karahan 1999); some Turkish folklorist have studied the aspect of collection, classification, comparison of proverbs and idioms (Ömer Asım Aksoy 1993, Yusuf Çotuksöken 1988-1992, Şahbaz Bayazıt 1969, Fethi Gözler 1982, Mustafa Özön 1956, Metin Yurtbaşı 1994, Feridun Fazıl Tülbentçi 1963, Aydın Oy 1972, Hatice İçel 2009). Proverbs and idioms may vary according to their structures and contexts. The purpose of this article is to scrutinize Turkish proverbs and idioms which never lose their popularity in Turkish society. The article specifically focus on the proverbs and idioms containing Turkish word yüz #8220;face #8221; and therefore to provide insights and contribution to further related studies. In this study, we determine the proverbs and idioms having the word yüz #8220;face #8221; by applying the previous studies on proverbs and idioms. Ömer Asım Aksoy, a well-known scholar in Turkish language and folklore has determined 2110 proverbs and 7853 idioms in his dictionary. We have found out 68 proverbs and idioms containing the word yüz #8220;face. #8221; In order to evaluate the proverbs and idioms with yüz #8220;face #8221; we have looked at some old Turkish sources such as Kutadgu Bilig and Atabat al-Haqa #8217;iq. We have also searched the Book of Dede Korkut, the most famous epic stories of the Oğuz Turks and carries morals and values important to the social lifestyle of the nomadic. Later, we have classified the proverbs and idioms according to their structures and styles. The classification has been divided into seven categories according to their grammatical structure and styles. In order to our research shed light on further studies, we have determined the proverbs and idioms according to their contents. We have discovered that the proverbs and idioms with yüz #8220;face #8221; reflect not only physical characteristics of human beings but also reflect cultural values of a society. Furthermore, the proverbs and idioms with yüz #8220;face #8221; according to their contents also carry people #8217;s negative and positive behaviors which can be classified individually and collective. We have also observed the proverbs and idioms in prayers and laments.