Microbiological and chemical properties of wet tarhana produced by different dairy products
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This study investigated the use of kefir, yogurt and their combination in the production of wet tarhana with an aim to increase the nutritional value of the end product. Along with microbiological and chemical properties, the volatile compound composition of wet tarhana was also evaluated. Wet tarhana revealed an increase in the lactic acid bacteria count (LAB) with the addition of kefir. After fermentation, counts of total yeast, LAB, and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria were 7.57, 8.26 and 7.64 log CFU/g, respectively. The values of pH and titratable acidity were measured as 4.78 and 4.68% in terms of lactic acid, respectively, at the end of fermentation. Lactic acid content increased from 3.31 to 10.82g/kg throughout fermentation. A total of 72 volatile compounds were recorded during fermentation and 44 of these were identified by GC-MS. The most abundant compounds identified in the tarhana samples were hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Moreover, ABTS antioxidant activity results of all formulations were measured in the range of 15.86 and 19.31 mu mol TE/g at the end of fermentation and it was independent of the fermentation period.