Evaluation of anabolic steroid induced renal damage with sonography in bodybuilders
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BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anabolic steroids on kidneys in bodybuilders. METHODS: Twenty-two bodybuilders were included in the study. Participants were divided into three groups according to the scheme of steroid usage: group 1 (N.=8, intramuscular 500 mg testosterone enanthate, intramuscular 400 mg nandrolone decanoate and oral 40 mg methandrostenolone for 12 weeks), group 2 (N.=7, intramuscular 500 mg testosterone enanthate, intramuscular 300 mg nandrolone decanoate and intramuscular 300 mg boldenone undecylenate for 16 weeks), and group 3 (N.=7. no steroid intake). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), urine micro-albumin and electrolyte levels were measured. Renal volume, cortical thickness and echogenicity were obtained in ultrasonographic scans. RESULTS: Renal volume, cortical thickness, echogenicity and protein intake value were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1 and 3. Plasma levels of BUN and Cr in group 2 were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.001). Urine microalbumin and electrolyte levels were normal in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that high protein intake, steroid usage, particularly the schemes, including boldenone undecylenate increases cortical echogenicity, thickness of renal parenchyma and renal volume in bodybuilders.