Phylogenetic analysis of black queen cell virus and deformed wing virus in honeybee colonies infected by mites in Van, Eastern Turkey
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This study aimed to determine the presence and prevalence of viral and parasitic infections causing high rates of colony loss in honey bee colonies in Van province, eastern Turkey. Twenty-six different apiaries were collected from five counties in Van province. These samples were tested by Reverse-Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV) and deformed wing virus (DWV). Selected positives were sequenced, phylogenetically analyzed and investigated in terms of Varroa. DWV and BQCV were identified in 69.23% (18/26) and 88.46% (23/26) of the bees respectively whereas ABPV and CBPV were not detected in the sampled apiaries. Results of the phylogenetic analysis of DWV and BQCV sequences showed 94-100% similarity to DWV and BQCV isolates obtained from Genbank. Prevalence of varroasis was 89% (23/26) in Van. The obtained samples were identified as Varroa destructor by morphological investigation. The study showed that viral and parasitic agents commonly infect honeybees in Van province, with high prevalence rates for BQCV and DWV. There was also a high degree of conservation of DWV and BQCV sequences distinct from DWV and BQCV isolates from other geographical regions. These findings, including current prevalence and phylogenetic analysis data for DWV, BQCV and varroazis in honeybees, are useful for future studies.