Effects of 5-aza-2 '-deoxycytidine on biological parameters of Achroia grisella F. (lepidoptera: pyralidae)
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The non-target effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), an epigenetically effective agent, were assessed on different life-history traits of two successive generations of Achroia grisella F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by trophic exposure. The results did not reveal any prominent effect of 5-Aza-dC on emergence times and morphological disorders of offspring of both sexes, and dry weight of F-1 females (except for 0.1 mg/ml) and males according to controls. However, 5-Aza-dC caused a considerable decrease in wet weight of F-1 females at > 0.1 mg/mL and in F-1 males only at 0.5 mg/mL. The mean longevity of F-1 and F-2 females was almost unchanged after exposure to 5-Aza-dC treatment. However, the longevity was considerably shorter, by 16% at a dose of 0.75 mg/mL for F-1 males and 28% longer at 1.0 mg/mL for F-2 males with respect to the controls. When the two generations were compared with each other in terms of adult longevity, the differences were not significant for the longevity of females, whereas F-2 males lived significantly longer than F-1 males in all groups except for the control and 0.5 mg/mL groups. 5-Aza-dC also markedly decreased the total number of both offspring but no dose-related alterations were observed. Analysis of the data for the number of viable and damaged eggs laid per F-1 females revealed that 5-Aza-dC adversely affected the reproductive potential of A. grisella based on daily and three-day observations. The most striking effect was a decline in fecundity of females by 57% at 1.0 mg/mL. These observations suggest that 5-Aza-dC has a negative effect on developing moth progeny across trophic levels.