Comparison of classic and microwave-assisted synthesis of benzo-thio crown ethers, and investigation of their ion pair extractions
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Macrocyclic benzo-thio crown ethers and benzo-oxo crown ethers were prepared using an esterification ring closing method. These compounds were synthesised using 2,2'-dithiodibenzoyl chloride, and various glycols and dithiols, in the presence of pyridine base under a nitrogen atmosphere in chloroform. All reactions were performed under reflux condition with conventional heating and microwave (MW) irradiation. The synthesised macrocycles were characterised by FT-IR, H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, LC-MS, and elemental analysis methods. Extraction studies have been performed on these original macrocycles using liquid-liquid ion-pair extraction with Li+, Na+, K+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe2+,Fe3+, Co3+, Pb2+, Cr3+, Ag+, and Cd2+.The KD, ext.%, AG and log KExt values were also calculated. While (U1-U7) ligands exhibits selectivity for Zn2+, Ag+, Ca2+, Pb2+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Co2+, Mg2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+ metal salts, they showed no selectivity for Li+, K+ and Na+ metal salts. Furthermore, Fe(3+)is the most selective cation for all ligands for competitive extraction. We also observed that microwave heating can have certain benefits over conventional ovens: reaction rate acceleration, milder reaction conditions, higher chemical yield, and lower energy usage. These ligands could be used as metal sensors, enzyme inhibitors, antimicrobial/antifungal agents, and in biological applications.