The validity of eight neoclassical facial canons in the Turkish adults
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The neoclassical canons were used to define the proportions between various areas of the head and face. Therefore, this study was done to establish the neoclassical canons of facial proportions in Turkish adults. A total of 200 healthy adults 20 to 35 years of age were examined. Using anthropometric landmarks, 5 horizontal and 9 vertical direct measurements were made on the faces with a sliding calliper. Results have been compared with 8 neoclassical facial canons. When comparing between sexes, a significant difference has been found in all measurements except the upper facial width, left eye-fissure width, forehead height I and II (p < 0.005). The nasofacial proportion has been found to include the most proportional subjects (33%) followed by the orbito-nasal (30%), the orbital proportion (25%) and the naso-oral proportion (17%) in the female. Considering the male, the orbital proportion has been found to include the most proportional subjects (23%) followed by the orbito-nasal proportion (21%), naso-facial proportion (19%) and the naso-oral proportion (17%). The neoclassical canons have been shown to rarely be applicable to Turkish adults and our results may contribute to determine the concepts of transcultural facial structures.