Investigation of the effects of silicone emulsions having different particle sizes on knitted fabrics depending on the type of yarn
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Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of silicone-based softeners, which were developed with different particle sizes (nano, micro, and macro) and chemical structures, on the performance of 100 percent cotton fabrics knitted with different type of yarn (ring, open-end, and compact). Design/methodology/approach - In the study, the silicone emulsions having expected particle sizes were produced at laboratory conditions. The produced silicone emulsions were applied to knitted fabrics with both padding and exhaust methods at different concentrations. Some characterization tests (particle size and zeta potential) were applied to the silicone emulsions before the applications. After the applications, CIELab values, whiteness and color fastness, hyrophility, abrasion, pilling, bursting strength, and stiffness performances of the samples were tested. The changes of the investigated properties were also examined via ANOVA. Findings - According to the results, it was found that the silicone applications caused the CIELab values, whiteness degree, hyrophility, pilling, bursting strength and stiffness performance of the fabrics to change depending on the particle sizes of the emulsions, the yarn type of the fabrics, the application type, and the concentration of the silicone emulsions. When the ANOVA results were examined, it was seen that the types of the yarn and the silicone emulsions were the most effective working parameters on the results. Research limitations/implications - Because no additives were added to the produced silicone emulsions, in the future research, they can be developed with the use of some additives. Thus, it can resolve some of the disadvantages of the silicone emulsions on the textiles. Practical implications - While applying the silicone softeners to the knitted fabrics, the type of the yarn and the particle sizes of the emulsions must be determined according to each other, in order to obtain enough handle performance without causing negative change on the other important properties of the knitted fabrics. Originality/value - When the studies regarding silicone softeners were investigated, it was found that there were no studies about the effect of the silicone softeners having different particle sizes on the physical and chemical structures of the knitted fabrics depending on the type of yarn and some working parameters such as concentration and type of the application.