The effects of 5-aza-2 '-deoxycytidine on total lipid and fatty acid composition of apanteles galleriae wilkinson (hymenoptera: braconidae) and on ıts parasitized host
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I investigated the changes in total lipid, total fatty acids, and fatty acid composition of endoparasitoid Apanteles galleriae Wilkinson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Achroia grisella Fabr. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) that was exposed to various doses of 5-Aza-2 '-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), an epigenetically-effective agent. The combined effects of parasitism and 5-Aza-dC treatment on the total lipid and fatty acids of host larvae were also examined. 5-Aza-dC caused insignificant fluctuations in total lipid and fatty acid ratios of A. galleriae and parasitized host larvae (PHL). Total lipid and fatty acids reached considerably the highest values in PHL and the lowest ratios in parasitoid larvae for all of the control and experimental groups. All stages of A. galleriae and PHL contained the 14-24 carbon fatty acids. Palmitic acid was the most abundant fatty acid for PHL and parasitoid pupae in each testing group, while oleic acid for parasitoid larvae. 5-Aza-dC treatment caused significant changes in linolenic acid ratio for parasitoid pupa and in lignoceric acid ratio for PHL, while the percent of different fatty acid classes did not differ significantly for stages/PHL. However, eicosenoic acid could not be detected in both insect species at doses > 0.1 mg/ml. There were significant differences among individual fatty acids and fatty acid classes (SFAs, UFAs, and PUFAs) for all stages/PHL. Besides, UFAs constituted the major proportion of fatty acids, whereas PUFAs were the smallest for all stages/PHL regardless of 5-Aza-dC treatment. 5-Aza-dC-induced changes for A. galleriae-A. grisella system seem to be considerable but the effect is reversible according to the result of fatty acid classes.