Removal of cationic dye (Basic red 18) from aqueous solution using natural Turkish clay
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In this study, the removal of a cationic dye, basic red 18, used in the textile industry with montmorillonite was investigated as a function of initial dye concentration, agitation speed, ionic strength, adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature. Adsorption process was attained to the equilibrium within 30 minutes. The adsorption capacity of basic red 18 increased with increasing ionic strength, initial dye concentration, pH, agitation speed, and temperature, but decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Elovich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms, and it was found that the isotherm data were reasonably correlated by Freundlich isotherm. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich kinetic equations and intraparticle diffusion model were used to examine the experimental data of different initial conditions. It was found that the pseudo-second order kinetic equation described the data of dye adsorption onto nnontmorillonite very well. Furthermore, for the removal of basic red 18, a semi-empirical model was established. Thermodynamic analysis was carried out for basic red 18 onto montmorillonite. It was found that the adsorption processes were endothermic in nature. The values of E-a, Delta H*, Delta S* and Delta G* at 293 K for basic red 18 adsorption on clay were calculated as 27.635 kJ mol(-1), 25.041kJ mol(-1), -0.090 kJ mal K-1 and 51.412 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The results indicated that montmorillonite could be employed as an alternative to commercial adsorbents in wastewater treatment for the removal of color and dyes.