Modification of TiO2(001) surface electronic structure by Au impurity investigated with density functional theory
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We have used density functional theory calculations based on the projector augmented wave method to investigate the electronic structure of Au-incorporated anatase TiO2(001) surface. Due to the coordination with several level oxygens, Au atoms can be encapsulated inside TiO2 slab. Au is adsorbed over the surface Ti-O bond, so-called the bridge site on anatase TiO2(001) - 1 X 1 surface. However, for 0.25 monolayer coverage, Au atoms energetically prefer to stay at 0.64 angstrom above the midpoint of the two surface oxygens which is significantly closer to the surface layer. When implanted inside the slab for full coverage, Au forms parallel metallic wires inside TiO2 lattice where interlayer distances increase due to local segregation. Au brings half-filled impurity states into the band gap leading to metallization, in addition to other filled surface and impurity bands within the gap. These Au-driven Fermi-level-pinning gap states are close to, or even in some cases inside, the conduction band of the host slab. On the other hand, if Au is substituted for the surface Ti atom, Fermi level falls lower in the gap closer to the valence-band top.