Ethnic uses of pine resin production from Pinus brutia by native people on the Kazdag Mountain (Mt. Ida) in Western Turkey
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The Turkish red pine (Pious brutia Ten.) forests are the most suitable forests of Turkey for the pine resin production by tapping, because of the conditions for both topography and climate of distribution area of these species. Named as the 'pine oleoresin', 'gum turpentine' or 'terpenes oil'; is the term 'essential oil of turpentine' which designates the terpenic oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of the pine resin. Pine resin constitutes the raw material of the traditional Turkish drugs. It is produced from barks of Pious brutia, that grows naturally in various regions of Turkey. In this review, traditional production of pine resin by local people in Western Turkey, its chemical properties and effects on health were explained. It is also determined that pine resin has an effective role in prevention of some diseases. The survey was carried out in 2 towns and 14 villages where the P brutia has largo population. Pine resin was collected from the mentioned fields, along with the information regarding local names, usage, sorting and grading methods obtained questioning the local people. Production of pine resin is an important source of income for people in local region. Pine resin is gathered directly by the local villagers, especially, unemployed people with financial difficulties. Also, threat factors and solution for long-term conservation of the pine resin production were also determined in this study. Major constituents of the pine resin were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, Delta 3-carene, camphene, limonene, myrtenol and caryophyllene oxide.