Effect of friction stir welding parameters on the mechanical and microstructure properties of the Al-Cu butt joint
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Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process used for welding similar and dissimilar materials. FSW is especially suitable to join sheet Al alloys, and this technique allows different material couples to be welded continuously. In this study, 1050 Al alloys and commercially pure Cu were produced at three different tool rotation speeds (630, 1330, 2440 rpm) and three different tool traverse speeds (20, 30, 50 mm/min) with four different tool position (0, 1, 1.5, 2 mm) by friction stir welding. The influence of the welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints was investigated. Tensile and bending tests and microhardness measurements were used to determine the mechanical properties. The microstructures of the weld zone were investigated by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and were analyzed in an energy dispersed spectrometer (EDS). Intermetallic phases were detected based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results that evaluated the formation of phases in the weld zone. When the welding performance of the friction stir welded butt joints was evaluated, the maximum value obtained was 89.55% with a 1330 rpm tool rotational speed, 20 mm/min traverse speed and a 1 mm tool position configuration. The higher tensile strength is attributed to the dispersion strengthening of the fine Cu particles distributed over the Al material in the stir zone region.