Relationship between the air quality and the physical environment in Balikesir
Turkey, one of the important shortcomings in the field of air pollution is the lack of sufficient researches. In Balikesir, there was a negative development in regard to SO2 and PM (Particular Matters) during the term 1990 to 1995, however, there have been no publications up to now concerning this matter. Balikesir is not a very industrialized city, although it is situated in the south of Marmara Region which is highly developed region in terms of industry. In spite of this fact, the negative development in the air quality has become noticeable in the city. Not only the rapid increase in the sources of pollutants, but also the physical environmental conditions are very effective on the low air quality of Balikesir. Physical environmental conditions are among the basic determining factors of the increasing or decreasing the density of two air quality decreasing elements, SO2 and PM in any area. Physical environmental factors form the transportational environment between the pollutant source and the receiver. The effect of physical environmental conditions on the air quality of Balikesir is important. This research is consisted of three sections; a) Determining the air quality of Balikesir during the years 1990 to 1995, b) Determining the physical environmental characteristics that are effective on the city centre of Balikesir, c) Explaining the interaction between the physical environment and the air quality with its causes and results. Also developing solution methods for increasing the air quality starting from the physical environmental features. Regular measurements for air quality control in Balikesir first began in 1990. However, just one centre for air quality measurement is not sufficient to represent the air quality of the whole area extending from the mountainous area in which old Balikesir city exists through the accommodation area which widens towards the Balikesir Plain. Balikesir was rated on a high level among the cities in Turkey where air quality is low, during the years between 1990 and 1995 especially during the term from October to March. Physical environmental factors are of supreme importance for the rapid decay of air quality in Balikesir. The term Physical environment includes the climatic elements as temperature, pressure and winds, pressure systems, humidity and precipitation, and also the features of geomorphological characteristics and plant formations. During 1990 - 1995 period physical environmental conditions were handled together with air quality elements. Accommodation areas developing without any consideration of the physical environmental conditions are one of the basic causes that cause the air quality to decrease. Balikesir settlement area being in plain ground surrounded by mountainous area is a proof of the negative physical environmental factors. However, with the application of healthy plans, the negative effects of the physical environment can be displaced, and then use of its positive potential can be possible.