In vitro effects of estrogen and progesterone containing drugs on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II isozymes in women smokers and nonsmokers
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Background: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a group of metalloenzymes, are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes such as acid base balance, gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, ureagenesis, electrolyte secretion in various tissues, bone resorption and calcification, and tumorigenicity. In the current study, we aimed to determine and compare possible alterations in the activity of carbonic anhydrase I (CA I) and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) isozymes by using estrogens and progestagens in female smokers and nonsmokers. Methods: Blood samples from 30 smoker and 30 nonsmoker volunteers were drawn after obtaining informed consent. The blood samples were centrifuged to separate the plasma and erythrocytes. Thereafter, hemolysate was prepared from the red cells. CA I and CA II were purified from human erythrocytes with a simple one-step procedure using Sepharose 4B-1-tyrosine-sulfonamide affinity column. CAI and CA II isozymes were treated with estrogen and progesterone-containing drugs, after which the inhibition or activation of the enzyme was determined. Results: CA I and CA II enzyme activity was observed to be increased in female smokers. The results of this study show that dienogest is the most effective inhibitor for human erythrocytes CA I when compared with micronized progesterone, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, estradiol valerate, and estradiol hemihydrate in both female smokers and nonsmokers. All active ingredients have been shown to have a stronger inhibition in smokers than nonsmokers for CA I activity. Additionally, estradiol valerate and hydroxyprogesterone caproate have stronger inhibition against CA II enzyme activity in women who smoke. Conclusion: The results of the current study provide important information to clinicians about how to consider the possible adverse effects of these drugs which are produced as a result of inhibition of CA I and CA II enzyme. Clinicians should take into consideration the side effects caused by CA I and CA II enzyme inhibition when prescribing these drugs in the treatment of different clinical conditions, especially in women who smoke.