Fuel analyses and thermochemical processing of olive residues
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In this study, fuel properties, such as proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, higher heating value, and ash composition of three olive residues from olive oil plants (olive cake, olive kernel shell and olive kernel), were determined by analytical methods. Fuel properties for the combustion analysis of the residues can be conveniently grouped into physical, chemical, thermal, and mineral properties. The carbon content of selected samples varies from about 53% to 55%. The hydrogen content of the species varies from 6.5% to 6.9%. Oxygen content ranges from 35.5% to 36.5%, S is less than 0.1% and N ranges from 0.4-0.9%. This study indicates that olive residues could be used as pyrolizable and liquefiable materials. The yield of liquefaction increased with increasing temperature of liquefaction. In general, the liquid yields from pyrolysis and catalytic liquefaction processes are higher than those of the other thermochemical methods.