Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV
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The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 key to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F-m(2)(x) with the Thomson formula and S-m(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of x < 1 angstrom(-1) and from the relativistic modified atomic form factors for values of x >= 1 angstrom(-1). With the inclusion of molecular interference effects in the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, more accurate knowledge of the scatter from these tissues will be provided. The number of elements involved in tissue composition is 5 for liver, 47 for kidney, 44 for muscle and 3 for fat. The results are compared with previously published experimental and theoretical linear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.