The association between vitamin D level and chronic pain and depression in premenopausal women
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Objective: To investigate the association between vitamin D level and non-specific musculoskeletal system pain and depression in premenopausal women. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighteen premenopausal women with common musculoskeletal pain and unknown etiology were included into the study. Levels of pain and depression were respectively measured with 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Levels of serum 25(OH)D, parathormone, alkaline phosphatase, and calcium were also measured. The threshold value of vitamin D was accepted as 20 ng/mL. Patients with 25(OH)D<20 ng/mL were classified as the vitamin D deficiency group (group 1), and those with >= 20 ng/mL were accepted as the vitamin D group within normal limits (group 2). Results: Of 218 participants, 174 (79.8%) were detected with vitamin D deficiency, while 44 (20.2%) were found with a normal level of vitamin D. A statistically significant difference was present between both groups as to VAS and BDI scores (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively), although both groups were similar as to age, body mass index (BMI), level of income, duration of complaints, educational status, family type, and profession (p>0.05). Whereas a negative correlation was present between level of vitamin D and VAS and BDI scores, no correlation was detected as to age, BMI, level of income, educational status (p<0.001); duration of complaints, and number of children (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our study indicates that vitamin D deficiency is a frequent finding in premenopausal women with chronic, non-specific musculoskeletal pain and that the level of vitamin D is associated with levels of pain and depression.