Ultra-structural changes and apoptotic activity in cerebellum of post-menopausal-diabetic rats: a histochemical and ultra-structural study
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common and chronic diseases, especially in postmenopausal periods. Neuro-degeneration occurs more frequently in post-menopausal diabetics. Therefore, we investigated ovariectomized rats cerebellar cortex response to the estradiol deficiency and hyperglycemia. For the ovariectomy, the rats were bilaterally ovariectomized, and then DM induced by a single dose of Alloxan monohydrate injection in ovariectomy or/and diabetic groups. During light and electron microscopic examination, degenerated Purkinje cells membrane, swollen organelles, degenerated mitochondria, edema formation and vacuolization were seen in the ovariectomy and ovariectomy-diabetic groups sections. In addition, increased apoptotic activity was observed in the ovariectomy and ovariectomy-diabetic groups compared to the control group. We demonstrated that estradiol and insulin deficiency can affect the cerebellar cortex, which support the hypothesis that the execution of neuronal damages in post-menopausal diabetics. Also, diabetes and menopause are major risks factors for many disorders including nervous system and the number of postmenopausal-diabetics are increasing world-wide.