A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the preconcentration of copper using 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazide and faas detection
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The aim of this study is to develop a new method for the preconcentration of copper via a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method using 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazide as a ligand and determination with FAAS in different sample types such as plants, soils and natural waters such as seawater. Optimum experimental conditions were determined, and the applicability of the proposed dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was investigated. In the first step of the work, the parameters that affect complex formation and extraction, such as volume of extractant/disperser solvent, pH and concentration of the chelating agent, NaCl and surfactant, were optimised. The interference effects from potential concomitants on the determination of the Cu(II) ion were investigated in synthetic mixtures that contain high levels of these ions. These results showed the analytical applicability of the proposed method in different kinds of samples. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range 2-600 mu g L-1 of copper, and the detection limit was 0.69 mu g L-1 in the original solution (3 Sb/m). The accuracy of the developed method was checked by analysing certified reference materials (QCS-19 (high purity standard), LGC 6156 (harbour sediment) and NBS 1572 (citrus leaves)). Results obtained were in agreement with certified values with a t test showing that no significant differences at the 95 % confidence interval levels were found. The proposed method was applied to seawater, river water, and plant and soil samples. The recovery values for spiked water samples were between 99.7 and 117.3 %.