Earthquake hazard assessment in Turkey: the Mw=7.4, Golcuk (August 17, 1999) and the Mw=7.1, Duzce (November 12, 1999) earthquakes
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During the 1999, the northwestern part of Turkey experienced two major earthquakes (Golcuk and Duzce) along the North Anatolian Fault Zone. The Golcuk Earthquake occurred on August 17, and caused damage in a zone extending from Duzce to Istanbul. The Duzce Earthquake struck on November 12, 1999 and caused damage in Duzce, Kaynash and Bolu. These two earthquakes caused significant changes in natural environment such as; surface rupture, cracks, landslides, offsets in the riverbeds, discharge of subsurface water from underground, liquefaction and coastal collapse. The surface rupture, which is 168 km long, extending from Kaynash to Golcuk, is the most significant. The changes after the earthquakes were identified from field measurements and assembling the existing maps at 1:25,000 and 1:100,000 scales. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.