Determination of the toxin profile of Venus gallina, Venus verrucosa and Cardium edule mussels in Turkey
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Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP), Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins were determined in a total of 705 mussel (Venus gallina, Venus verrucosa, Cordium edule) samples, obtained from the Western Coastline of the Black Sea and commercial shellfish processing companies in Istanbul between August 2005 and October 2007. The ASP toxins were determined by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), PSP and DSP toxins were analysed by mouse bioassays. The presence of PSP and DSP toxins could not be detected in any of the samples during the analysis period. For ASP, an average level of 1.94 +/- 1.1 mu g/g mussel meat was determined in 10 (1.42%) of 705 samples during the sampling period. As a result, the levels of ASP, PSP and DSP toxins in the samples analysed were found to be in accordance with the limits set in Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004. It was concluded that the levels of toxin in the mussel samples were no problem for human consumption, because ASP was at fairly low levels in the samples obtained in the spring period when algal growth is increased, while PSP and DSP toxins could not be detected in any of the samples. These results provide a basis for effective monitoring and control of these toxins in Turkey.