Power distance and its implications for upward communication and empowerment: Crisis management and recovery in hospitality services
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This study explores the influence of power distance in a relatively high power distance culture (Turkish) and a relatively low power distance culture (British) from the viewpoint of the expressions used by subordinates when communicating with their superiors in situations of service crises and recovery. The findings suggest that in Turkey subordinates use much more mitigated and indirect expressions when faced with service crises which may lead delays in the identification and solving of customer problems. This, in turn, is believed to cause a failure in the formation of customer loyalty and an increase in the customer switching behaviour.