Micromorphological and anatomical characteristics of the genus Chrysophthalmum Schultz bip. (Asteraceae) growing in Turkey
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The genus Chrysophthalmum (Asteraceae) is represented by five species in the world. Three species of this genus are naturally grown in Turkey. The species growing in Turkey are C. montanum (DC.) Boiss., C. dichotomum Boiss. and Heldr. and C. gueneri Aytac and Anderb. Except C. montanum; the other species are endemic for Turkey. In the present study, micromorphological and anatomical characteristics of these species by using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been comparatively presented for the first time. The micromorphological studies are related to trichomes and cypsela. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of the stem, and leaf have been examined. In addition, to show stomatal distribution and anatomy on adaxial and abaxial leaves, surface sections of the leaves have been taken and stomatal index calculated. The features of stems, leaves, trichomes and cypsela have been found to be significant to distinguish the species. Mesophyll structure, number of vascular bundles in midrib, presence or absence of sclerenchymatous fibers in leaf, trichome types, presence or absence of pappus in cypsela, presence or absence of hair on cypsela surface are important diagnostic characters. A diagnostic key based on combined leaf, trichome and cypsela characteristics of the Chrysophthalmum species has been given.