Agrophysical and agrochemical scientific base for integrated management of agroecosystem water-nutrients statuses
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The paper deals with complete scientific base to link the soil water status with the soil nutrient regime for plants. The base is developed and offered for simultaneous management of both complex environmental factors in agricultural practices. The innovative world attainments, concerning computerised monitoring, new quantitative estimate, and modem decision support system for managing the agro-ecosystem water-nutrients statuses, are applied. We formulate the main scientific and practical problems of the rural water-nutrient management, which are recently solved. We revealed the ecological and economical aspects of water-nutrient application in agriculture, and the cardinal steps in development of agriculture in Bulgaria, the states of the European Union, and all other countries in the world. New Bulgarian index of energy levels (L) of soil moisture and new method for agrophysical estimating the soil-crop water status as a whole for the growing season are used. The well-known equations to calculate the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and micro-elements fertilising rates were improved, introducing the new index of energy levels (L) of soil moisture, to take into account the impact of specific soil-crop water status created by farmers in field on agrochemical nutrients in soil and on the amount and quality of crop yield. For saving energy, irrigation water, fertilisers, human labour and protecting the environment (soil, surface and underground water, and atmosphere), we offer the new ecotechnology.