Güney-kuzey köle ticaretinde Antalya limanı
MetadataShow full item record
Antalya limanı, geçmişte Anadolu'nun Akdeniz ve Dünya Ticaret ağına açılan önemli bir kapısıdır. Liman güney- kuzey köle ve emtia ticaretinde merkezi bir kavşak görevi görmüştür. Bu ticaretin de Antalya'nın Akdeniz de önemli bir liman şehri haline gelmesine katkısı yadsınamaz. Liman; Bizans, Selçuklu ve Osmanlılar zamanında Akdeniz tüccarlarının uğrak yeri olmuştur. Hindistan ve Arap mallarının giriş kapısı niteliğindedir. Osmanlı döneminde Antalya limanından elde edilen gelirler arasından kölelerden alınan pençik resminin önemli bir payı olduğunu söylenebilir. Köle ticareti trafiğinde liman önem arz etmektedir. Hindistan baharat ticaretin yolunun değişmesi ile 17. yüzyılda liman işlerliğini kaybetse de Afrika'dan köle getirilmeye devam edilmiştir. 19. yüzyıl Antalya şer'iyye sicillerinde siyahi kölelere rastlanmaktadır. Osmanlı geniş toprak sahiplerinin ve hane halkı aileleri ile Batı Anadolu da tarım faaliyetlerde halen köle emeğine gerek duyulduğu sonucuna varılabilir. Bu doğrultuda literatür destekli birincil kaynak olarak Başbakanlık "başmuhasebe defteri" ve "kamil kepeci" tasnifleri kullanılmıştır. Osmanlı Arşivlerinden "maliyeden müdevver"Antalya port was an important gateway to Anatolia's Mediterranean and World Trade network in the past. The port served as a central junction in the south-north slave trade and commodity trade. It cannot be denied that this trade contributed to Antalya in becoming an important port city in the Mediterranean. The port became a frequent place for Mediterranean merchants during the Byzantine, Selçuklu and Ottoman periods. It was the gateway to the Indian and Arabian goods. It can be said that the "pençik" image taken from the slaves had an important share among the income obtained from the port of Antalya during the Ottoman period. The port was important in slave trade traffic. Although the port lost business in the 17th Century with the change of the way of Indian spice trading, it carried on to bring slaves from Africa. Black slaves are found in the 19th century Antalya sherist registers. With the Ottoman large landowners and households, it can be concluded that slave labour was still needed for agricultural activities in Western Anatolia. In this respect, of the Prime Ministry Ottoman archives, "Finance Circular", "Head Accounting Book" and "Kamil Kepeçi" regimentations were used as the primary source supported by the literature. This study aims to analyze the change, transition and development of Antalya and its port within the frame of historical period. The history of Antalya has been put forward by dividing it into before Turks, Selcuklu and Ottoman periods. In this context, the trade and trade of slave have been studied. Firstly, the role of Antalya in north trade, then its role in the south trade and its position in the silk and spice roads have been handled and slave trade has been explained. Moreover, it has been found out that custom taxes gained from slave trade, the "mukataa" of Antalya port and "iltizams" have been identified Antalya port was an important gateway to Anatolia's Mediterranean and World Trade network in the past. The port served as a central junction in the south-north slave trade and commodity trade. It cannot be denied that this trade contributed to Antalya in becoming an important port city in the Mediterranean. The port became a frequent place for Mediterranean merchants during the Byzantine, Selçuklu and Ottoman periods. It was the gateway to the Indian and Arabian goods. It can be said that the pençik image taken from the slaves had an important share among the income obtained from the port of Antalya during the Ottoman period. The port was important in slave trade traffic. Although the port lost business in the 17th Century with the change of the way of Indian spice trading, it carried on to bring slaves from Africa. Black slaves are found in the 19th century Antalya sherist registers. With the Ottoman large landowners and households, it can be concluded that slave labour was still needed for agricultural activities in Western Anatolia. In this respect, of the Prime Ministry Ottoman archives, "Finance Circular", "Head Accounting Book" and "Kamil Kepeçi" regimentations were used as the primary source supported by the literature. In this study, a short history before the Turkish domination was given within the context of the trade with the Selçuklu and the Ottoman period Antalya sections. Subsequently, with the international Mediterranean trade, Ottoman slave trade was examined. The history of the region dates back to ancient times the founder of the city is Bergama King II Attalos (159-138 B.C.). Antalya began to develop as a trade center in the period of the Roman Empire, which ruled the region in 79 B.C. and continued in the Byzantine Empire time and the Middle Ages. In the trade between Antalya-Alexandria and Tripoli-Antalya, Venice and Genoese were active. The factor that brought these two major trading states of the Middle Ages to Antalya was the intense trading traffic between Egypt and Antalya. The establishment of Turkish domination in Antalya was possible only when the Anatolian Selçuklu State came to the region. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev, who captured the city with the help of the Greeks on March 5, 1207, assigned Mübarizüddin Ertokuş, who was a great contributor to his throne, as the governor. After this conquest, the Turks had the opportunity to open to the Mediterranean thanks to the city. After the re-domination of Antalya, which was in the hands of the Kingdom of Cyprus for a while, by İzzeddin Keykavus on January 22, 1216, the old docks and breakwaters were repaired and a shipyard was established. Thus, the city was made to be a center of the Selçuklu's naval fleet in the Mediterranean as well as trade development. Antalya gained importance in north-south trade for its geographical position. This significance increased especially with the security of sea trade and the rise of the Anatolian Selçuklu State. As Selçuklu administration gave importance to trade, Antalya was the gateway to Mediterranean. Together with the fact that Anatolia was active in international trade, the significance of the roads connecting to Antalya began to increase. Together with the fact that Toros Mountains extending from the east to the west in the region parallel to the sea limits Antalya's connection with the inner regions, it enabled the connection with many cities, especially Konya, to be actively maintained through various transit points. The first road connecting Antalya with the inner regions during the Selçuklu period was the northern road connecting Antalya to Isparta, and the second road was Antalya-Konya road; and if not last, the third major route was the coastal road. During the Ottoman domination, the trade volume of AntalyaAlexandria had increased considerably. According to customs records, for example, fifty ships carrying twenty-thirty merchants each arrived at the port of Antalya in 1559 and there were lumber, iron, Ankara wool, tar, wax, fur and slaves among the goods exported to Anatolia Antalya and mainly to Syria and Egypt. Products such as opium and dried nuts can also be added to all these, and Indian Spice, indigo, Egyptian linen and black slaves were imported from Egypt. Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror controlled the Mediterranean and Black Sea trade by taking the Straits under control and took action against Karamanoğulları because Sultan Mehmet thought that the control of trade routes for the development of trade was a sign of economic power and a source of income for a powerful and centralized empire. During his reign, Antalya was an important warehouse for northsouth trade. The 450,000 gross customs income obtained from Antalya in 1476-77 should be regarded as an indication of this preoccupation. Despite all, the 16th century would not be a century for Antalya to experience very good developments. However, in 1517, the Mamluk prince's defeat by Yavuz Sultan Selim started Ottoman domination in Egypt. Not long after the eastern Mediterranean cruise, the knights who lived in Rhodes Island had to go to Malta Island in 1522 due to the campaign of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. These two events completely devastated the trading sector. Though not suddenly, Antalya was then not a route for commercial commodities taken to Bursa and Istanbul. The reason for this change was not just Egypt and Rhodes. With the change of Indian spice route as a result of geographical discoveries, the East Mediterranean had begun to lose importance since 17th century. Antalya has been one of the important ports of the Eastern Mediterranean since it was founded. This significance increased even more after the establishment of the Selçuklu State in Anatolia and after Anatolia became the center of international trade. Not only was it the gate of Anatolia opening to Europe, but it also became the entrance gate of Anatolia for Egyptian trade. However, all these positive developments for Antalya caused the decline of the importance of eastern Mediterranean ports by the conquest of Egypt and Rhodes and geographical discoveries. As this continued in the 18th century, Antalya never came back to its former position. All these developments were also valid for the slave trade. Of course, the real effect came out when slave trade was completely banned by the press of the international public. Thus, as in all ports of the state, slave trade also became impossible in Antalya. In this research, the change, transformation and development of Antalya and its port was examined in the historical process. By dividing the history of Antalya into three periods as pre-Turks, Selçuklu and Ottoman, the periodic effectivity of Antalya port was revealed. Within this context, trade and slave trade in the port of Antalya was investigated. First, the role of Antalya in the northern trade, and then in the southern trade, its position on the silk and spice routes and slave trade was examined. Besides, customs duties received from the slave trade, institutions and tax farming which Antalya pier was given to were identified.