The modernization of education in the Ottoman Empire: the first steps
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Founded in 1299, the Ottoman state developed in a short period of time and actually transformed into an empire by the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) by Mehmed II in 1453. Classical curriculum theory continued without undergoing any changes in the Ottoman Empire, being an influential empire during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries. On the other hand, the military revolution developed in Europe forced the Ottoman officials into a paradigm shift. In this chapter, the curriculum theory, which underwent a change based on the military reforms during the period between 1730 and 1826, has been analyzed. Therefore, the answer to the question of “what is the most valuable knowledge?” was no longer based on religion, but it was based on science and this change has also become influential in the nineteenth century.